06 Dec 2017

This article will take about 4 minutes to read.
2 Comments

For handling API calls I have a small snippet I’m copying from project to project. I decided to clean it up, make more generic and share it. It is intended to be a starting point, so you might want to customize it to your custom needs.

What it does?

It is a simple wrapper around If you need a polyfill isomorphic-fetch is a great one.

Please note that function will return a Promise so you need to handle how it resolves.

Code

It is written as a native ES2015 module, which means you may need to transpile it depending on your browser support policy.

// ------------------------------------------------------ //
// Simple JavaScript API wrapper
// https://stanko.github.io/simple-javascript-api-wrapper
// ------------------------------------------------------ //

// For demo purposes I'm using this awesome Star Wars API
const API_URL = 'https://swapi.co/api';

// Custom API error to throw
function ApiError(message, data, status) {
  let response = null;
  let isObject = false;

  // We are trying to parse response
  try {
    response = JSON.parse(data);
    isObject = true;
  } catch (e) {
    response = data;
  }

  this.response = response;
  this.message = message;
  this.status = status;
  this.toString = function () {
    return `${ this.message }\nResponse:\n${ isObject ? JSON.stringify(this.response, null, 2) : this.response }`;
  };
}

// API wrapper function
const fetchResource = (path, userOptions = {}) => {
  // Define default options
  const defaultOptions = {};
  // Define default headers
  const defaultHeaders = {};

  const options = {
    // Merge options
    ...defaultOptions,
    ...userOptions,
    // Merge headers
    headers: {
      ...defaultHeaders,
      ...userOptions.headers,
    },
  };

  // Build Url
  const url = `${ API_URL }/${ path }`;

  // Detect is we are uploading a file
  const isFile = options.body instanceof File;

  // Stringify JSON data
  // If body is not a file
  if (options.body && typeof options.body === 'object' && !isFile) {
    options.body = JSON.stringify(options.body);
  }

  // Variable which will be used for storing response
  let response = null;

  return fetch(url, options)
    .then(responseObject => {
      // Saving response for later use in lower scopes
      response = responseObject;

      // HTTP unauthorized
      if (response.status === 401) {
        // Handle unauthorized requests
        // Maybe redirect to login page?
      }

      // Check for error HTTP error codes
      if (response.status < 200 || response.status >= 300) {
        // Get response as text
        return response.text();
      }

      // Get response as json
      return response.json();
    })
    // "parsedResponse" will be either text or javascript object depending if
    // "response.text()" or "response.json()" got called in the upper scope
    .then(parsedResponse => {
      // Check for HTTP error codes
      if (response.status < 200 || response.status >= 300) {
        // Throw error
        throw parsedResponse;
      }

      // Request succeeded
      return parsedResponse;
    })
    .catch(error => {
      // Throw custom API error
      // If response exists it means HTTP error occured
      if (response) {
        throw new ApiError(`Request failed with status ${ response.status }.`, error, response.status);
      } else {
        throw new ApiError(error, null, 'REQUEST_FAILED');
      }
    });
};

export default fetchResource;

Usage

fetchResource accepts two arguments, mandatory URL and optional options to be passed to the fetch request. If you wrap each API request in a function with it’s specific options it will be easier to maintain.

Few examples:

// Simple get request
function getUsers() {
  return fetchResource('users');
}

// Post request with payload
function signIn(username, password) {
  return fetchResource('signin', {
    method: 'POST',
    body: {
      username,
      password,
    },
  });
}

// Put request, with file data and custom headers
function uploadAvatar(userId, file) {
  return fetchResource(`users/${ userId }/avatar/`, {
    method: 'PUT',
    body: file,
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': file.type,
    },
  });
}

Then you call newly created API functions, they will return a Promise, so you need to define then (and catch for errors).

getUsers()
  .then(userData => {
    // Do something with the "data"
  })
  .catch(error => {
    // Handle error
    // error.message (error text)
    // error.status (HTTTP status or 'REQUEST_FAILED')
    // error.response (text, object or null)
  })

Demo

I’ve cooked a small demo to show it in practice, in which I used free Star Wars API.

Feel free to play with it on CodePen.

Category
JavaScript

Comments (2)

brian
07 Dec 2017, 01:24 PM

what's the difference from using this polyfill?

https://github.com/github/fetch

Stanko
07 Dec 2017, 01:59 PM

Hello brian,

If you are asking about isomorphic-fetch, it is actually built on top of the github's polyfill, just made universal (it can run on the server).

Then if you are asking about my fetchResource function, it is just light wrapper for handling API requests in frontend applications. It is easy to hook it up with application logic (redux for example) as it handles common logic and gives more descriptive errors.

Cheers!

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